What Is an Inguinal Hernia?
An inguinal hernia occurs in the groin area when fatty or intestinal tissues push through the inguinal canal which is at the base of the abdomen. In men, the testes usually descend through this canal shortly before birth. In women, the canal is the location for the uterine ligament. If you have a hernia in this passage, it results in a protruding bulge that may be painful during movement.
Many people don’t seek treatment for this type of hernia because it may not cause any symptoms. Prompt medical treatment can help prevent further protrusion and discomfort.
Symptoms of Inguinal Hernia
These types of hernias are most noticeable by their appearance. They cause bulges along the pubic or groin areas that can increase in size when you stand up or cough. This type of hernia may be painful or sensitive to the touch.
Other symptoms may include:
- Pain when coughing, exercising, or bending over
- Burning sensations
- Sharp pain
- A heavy or full sensation in the groin
- Swelling of the scrotum in men
Causes and Risk Factors of Inguinal Hernia
There isn’t one cause for this type of hernia, but weak spots within the abdominal and groin muscles are thought to be a major contributor. Extra pressure on this area of the body can eventually cause a hernia. Risk factors such as these can increase your chances of this condition:
- Personal history of hernias
- Being male
- Premature birth
- Being overweight or obese
- Cystic fibrosis
- Chronic cough
- Frequent constipation
- Frequently standing for long periods of time
Types of Inguinal Hernias
Inguinal hernias can be either indirect or direct. The most common is an indirect inguinal hernia which often occurs in premature births, before the inguinal canal can fully develop. However, can occur at any time during your life and is most common in males.
A direct inguinal hernia most often occurs in adults. The popular belief is that weakening muscles during adulthood lead to a direct inguinal hernia, and is also more prevalent in men.
Inguinal hernias can also be incarcerated or strangulated. An incarcerated inguinal hernia happens when tissue becomes stuck in the groin and can’t go back. Strangulated versions are more serious medical conditions that restrict blood flow to the small intestine. Strangulated hernias are life-threatening and require emergency medical care.
Diagnosis of an Inguinal Hernia
A doctor can easily push these hernias back into your abdomen when you are lying down. However, if this is unsuccessful, you may have a strangulated inguinal hernia. Your doctor can make this determination during a physical exam. During the exam, your doctor will ask you to cough while standing so he can check the hernia when it’s at its largest.
Treating Inguinal Hernias
Surgery is the primary treatment for inguinal hernias. It’s a very common operation and a highly successful procedure when done by a well-trained surgeon. Your doctor will recommend either open repair or laparoscopic surgery (done through a small scope).
Open repair involves making an incision in the groin and returning the abdominal tissues to the abdomen and repairing the abdominal wall defect. Laparoscopy uses several short incisions rather than a single, longer incision – it may be preferable if you want a shorter recovery time.